Biomedicines | Free Full-Text | Current and Emerging Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Biomarkers in Head and Neck Cancer

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Biomedicines | Free Full-Text | Current and Emerging Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Biomarkers in Head and Neck Cancer


Diagnosis EBV status Serologic tests examining antibodies to EBV IgA are performed to evaluate patients with suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Beta 2-microglobulin A component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. It is associated with tumor status in various cancers. Diagnostic/Prognostic p16Ink4a An indirect marker of HPV-positive disease in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. HPV-E6 seropositivity Antibodies to the HPV virus E6 antigen. Linked to an increased risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer. Circulating tumor HPV DNA Fragments of HPV DNA shed from tumor cells into the blood; highly specific for malignancy. Oral HPV DNA Oncogenic HPV DNA found in oral rinses. Has been associated with treatment response and recurrence following treatment but has been shown to have less sensitivity compared to ctHPVDNA. Prognostic Estrogen receptor positivity Tumor estrogen receptor alpha (Era) positivity, being studied as a biomarker for improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival in HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer. Hypoxia markers Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, contributing to a more aggressive phenotype and modifying the free radical chemistry of tumors. TP53 and P53 A tumor-suppressor gene that regulates gene overexpression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cyclin D1 Regulator of the G1 checkpoint of cell division. D1 has been implicated in the development of tumors of the esophagus, ovary, breast, colon, lung, and the head and neck. Cathepsin-D A lysosomal enzyme found throughout the body’s cells. It has been found to be overexpressed and/or abnormally processed in various cancer cells and is thought to have a role in local tumor invasion and metastasis. Bcl-2 A key mitochondrial protein that regulates apoptosis, with overexpression of the protein neutralizing pro-apoptotic proteins and inhibiting apoptosis in the cell. Prognostic/predictive Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme, Catalytic Polypeptide (APOBEC) Aberrantly acting DNA-modifying enzymes that have been linked to DNA mutations and tumor formation. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio The balance of neutrophils and lymphocytes, expressed as a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), has been shown to predict outcomes in solid tumors. PTEN A tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway and regulates various processes related to cell growth and proliferation. ERCC1 Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is an important part of the nucleotide excision repair pathway of DNA repair. PD-L1 Expression PD-L1 is an immune checkpoint regulator and immunomodulatory protein expressed in various immune cells. EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor, overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors, with significant representation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor budding and epithelial–mesenchymal transition Tumor budding is defined as the presence of single tumor cells or groups of tumor cells at the tumor margin. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition involves the transformation of an epithelial cell into a mesenchymal cell phenotype. DNA methylation DNA methylation occurs through the addition of a methyl group to a carbon of cytosine, forming 5-methylcytosine. This leads to a change in the activity of transcription factors and the mobility of various proteins. MicroRNAs MicroRNAs are molecules of non-coding DNA that regulate gene expression and dysregulation. Beta-tubulin isotypes Beta-tubulin isotypes regulate the structure of microtubules. PSMD14 PSMD14 is a proteasomal degradation protein that removes ubiquitin from proteins. SSP1 SSP1 prevents the proliferation of effector T cells. Matrix metalloproteinase family of enzymes Matrix metalloproteinases participate in a variety of biological processes including the degradation of tissue components, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis.

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And in case you missed it, here is our ultimate road trip playlist is the perfect mix of podcasts, and hidden gems that will keep you energized for the entire journey

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