Exploring the Relationships among Internal Branding, Work Engagement, and Turnover Intention in Public Sports Organizations after the Pandemic
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between IB of PSOs, WE and TI of employees, and to examine the mediating effect of WE. This study is expected to remind us of the importance of improving OMC and IC, and to provide empirical basic data to help induce positive work performance and behavior in employees. Lastly, this study tries to expand and apply the concept of IB to PSOs to present related theoretical and practical implications.
3.1. Participants and Procedures
This study collected data from 305 employees working for PSOs in 2022 by using the convenience sampling method. PSOs indicate Korea Sports Promotion Foundation (KSPO), Korean Sport & Olympic Committee (KSOC), Athletic organizations, Taekwondo Promotion Foundation, Korea Paralympic Committee (KPC), KSPO & CO. (Seoul, Republic of Korea). Prior to the distribution of the questionnaire, the purpose of this study was sufficiently explained to each PSO. It was advised in advance to immediately stop the survey or replace it with an online survey, considering that the content and response of the survey can be burdensome in that it reveals the individual’s perception and attitude toward the organization’s IB activities.
The instrument for measurement was a questionnaire in which all questions, except for those about demographics, were measured using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Strongly disagree, 5 = Strongly agree). Before its distribution, a draft consisting of 26 questions was examined for content validity by an expert group formed by one professor, three researchers with a Ph.D. degree, and five employees working for PSOs. The resulting final questionnaire consisted of 31 questions, including 13 for OMC, 4 for IC, 5 for WE, and 4 for TI.
The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of IB of PSOs on WE and TI, and to verify the mediating effect of WE. This study aims to present theoretical and practical implications which can contribute to improving OMC and strengthening IC by understanding the attitudes and behaviors of employees in PSOs. The main results of this study are as follows.
Firstly, OMC had a significant positive effect on WE, but there was no significant relationship between IC and WE. Secondly, while OMC had a negative effect on TI, IC had a positive effect on TI. Thirdly, WE had a significant negative effect on TI. Lastly, WE has been shown to partially mediate the relationship between OMC and TI. The most striking result of this study is that the effectiveness of IC currently carried out by PSOs is questioned. In other words, it implies that IC felt by employees does not contribute to the improvement of their work performance and organizational productivity. Thus, PSOs need to review the overall efficiency of their activities to improve the quality of IC. These efforts are expected to contribute to enhancing WE and satisfaction by helping employees clearly understand the core vision and values of PSOs. This can have a positive effect on improving the organizational culture of PSOs in South Korea that value vertical hierarchy.
6.1. Theoretical Implications
Previous studies in Korea have tended to deal with organizational culture, communication, mentoring, and leadership separately to verify the organizational effectiveness of PSOs. This study is significant in that it applied the concept of IB to PSOs and attempted to comprehensively grasp its effectiveness through two types of OMC and IC. Secondly, this study suggests that employees can differently perceive the effectiveness of OMC and IC within IB activities. In particular, it was found that IC of PSOs can even increase the intention to turnover. Therefore, the results of this study reminds us that IB of public organizations is essential for the operation of the organization, but the outcomes may not necessarily result in the direction the organization pursues. Lastly, this study confirmed the partial mediating role of WE in the relationship between OMC and TI. Organizations may have the desire for their employees to have WE which includes commitment, enthusiasm, and spontaneity. Therefore, if studies to identify factors affecting employees’ WE are conducted in the future, it can be of considerable significance in terms of strengthening organizational effectiveness.
6.2. Managerial Implications
Firstly, PSOs should create an organizational culture in which employees can properly reflect and practice the values and visions of the organization in their work. To this end, it might be important to clearly figure out how much value the organization shares with its employees. For instance, PSOs should prioritize setting target values so that their employees can use the organization’s values as guidelines for action. After that, organizations will have to establish a transition plan by comparing and grasping the degree difference between the target organizational culture level and the current organizational culture level. Furthermore, the top management should play a role in establishing an active organizational culture by proactively practicing the vision and value pursued by their organization. Secondly, it is necessary to examine whether the purpose of IC in PSOs is now well communicated to employees or whether employees are dissatisfied with the activities. In other words, PSOs need to actively collect opinions from employees and listen to requirements during IC activities. Accordingly, PSOs should actively utilize bottom-up communication so that the opinions of employees can be reflected in the development and implementation of education and training programs. Also, PSOs will have to strengthen IC so that employees can concentrate on themselves in a new work environment after the pandemic. Lastly, organizations should make efforts to provide conditions for its employees to work with a sense of calling. For example, organizations should check human resource management processes to create an environment where employees can immerse themselves in their work with enthusiasm. In addition, if an organization helps increase the closeness between its employees’ jobs and the organization’s values and visions, and strives to create a smooth communication culture between colleagues and managers, it will eventually increase organizational efficiency.
6.3. Limitations and Future Research Directions
Firstly, since this study was conducted on only 305 employees in PSOs in Korea, it is somewhat difficult to generalize the results of this study to all employees of PSOs. In future studies, it is expected to be more meaningful if the scope and number of samples are further expanded. Secondly, this study set only IB as an independent variable to verify WE and TI of employees in PSOs. However, since various factors can affect employee’s attitude and behavioral intentions, it might be necessary to apply various predictors that can affect strengthening organizational effectiveness in future studies. Lastly, employees may have different perceptions and attitudes toward IB depending on gender, age, job, position, and wage satisfaction. Thus, it might be meaningful to compare and analyze differences between groups by classifying employees based on specific demographic characteristics in future studies.
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