Identifying Nutrient Export Hotspots Using a Spatially Distributed Model in Boreal-Forested Catchments
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School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, Joensuu Campus, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Latokartanonkaari 7, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Forests 2023, 14(3), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14030612 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 February 2023
Revised: 12 March 2023
Accepted: 14 March 2023
Published: 19 March 2023
The implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) aimed to reduce nutrient export from catchments to water courses. Forest operations cause diffuse loading, which challenges the efficient targeting of water protection measures. We formed 100 equally probable clear-cut scenarios, to investigate how the location of the clear-cuts influenced the total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorous (TP) export on different scales. The nutrient export was calculated by using a distributed nutrient export model (NutSpaFHy). The clear-cut-induced excess TN and TP exports varied by 4.2%–5.5% and 5.0%–6.5%, respectively, between the clear-cut scenarios. We analyzed how the sub-catchment characteristics regulated the background export. The results also suggested that there was no single sub-catchment feature, which explained the variation in the TN and TP exports. There were clear differences in the background export and in the clear-cut-induced export between the sub-catchments. We also found that only 5% of the forest area could contribute up to half of the total nutrient export. Based on our results, we presented a conceptual planning framework, which applied the model results to finding areas where the nutrient export was high. Application of this information could improve the overall effectiveness of the water protection measures used in forestry.
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Leinonen, A.; Salmivaara, A.; Palviainen, M.; Finér, L.; Peltola, H.; Laurén, A. Identifying Nutrient Export Hotspots Using a Spatially Distributed Model in Boreal-Forested Catchments. Forests 2023, 14, 612.
Leinonen A, Salmivaara A, Palviainen M, Finér L, Peltola H, Laurén A. Identifying Nutrient Export Hotspots Using a Spatially Distributed Model in Boreal-Forested Catchments. Forests. 2023; 14(3):612.
Leinonen, Antti, Aura Salmivaara, Marjo Palviainen, Leena Finér, Heli Peltola, and Annamari Laurén. 2023. “Identifying Nutrient Export Hotspots Using a Spatially Distributed Model in Boreal-Forested Catchments” Forests 14, no. 3: 612.
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