Implementation of Non-Isolated High Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Using ANN-Based MPPT Controller

7
Implementation of Non-Isolated High Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Using ANN-Based MPPT Controller


Figure 1.
Illustration of FCEV system.

Figure 1.
Illustration of FCEV system.

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Figure 2.
Proposed converter-fed BLDC motor-driven electric vehicle.

Figure 2.
Proposed converter-fed BLDC motor-driven electric vehicle.

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Figure 3.
Schematic layout of the fuel cell [28].

Figure 3.
Schematic layout of the fuel cell [28].
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Figure 4.
Electrical circuit of the PEMFC [29].

Figure 4.
Electrical circuit of the PEMFC [29].
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Figure 5.
Proposed non-isolated high gain interleaved converter.

Figure 5.
Proposed non-isolated high gain interleaved converter.

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Figure 6.
Theoretical waveform of the proposed converter.

Figure 6.
Theoretical waveform of the proposed converter.

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Figure 7.
Operational stages of the proposed converter. (a) Stage I (t0–t1). (b) Stage II (t1–t2). (c) Stage III (t2–t3). (d) Stage IV (t3−t4). (e) Stage V (t4–t5). (f) Stage VI.

Figure 7.
Operational stages of the proposed converter. (a) Stage I (t0–t1). (b) Stage II (t1–t2). (c) Stage III (t2–t3). (d) Stage IV (t3−t4). (e) Stage V (t4–t5). (f) Stage VI.

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Figure 8.
DC gains versus the duty cycle.

Figure 8.
DC gains versus the duty cycle.

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Figure 10.
Structure of the radial basis function network (RBFN).

Figure 10.
Structure of the radial basis function network (RBFN).

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Figure 11.
MATLAB structure of the RBFN.

Figure 11.
MATLAB structure of the RBFN.

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Figure 12.
Change of temperature in the fuel cell.

Figure 12.
Change of temperature in the fuel cell.

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Figure 13.
Output current of the fuel cell.

Figure 13.
Output current of the fuel cell.

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Figure 14.
Output voltage of the fuel cell.

Figure 14.
Output voltage of the fuel cell.

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Figure 15.
Output power of the fuel cell.

Figure 15.
Output power of the fuel cell.

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Figure 16.
Output current of the converter with the RBFN.

Figure 16.
Output current of the converter with the RBFN.

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Figure 17.
Output voltage of the converter with the RBFN.

Figure 17.
Output voltage of the converter with the RBFN.

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Figure 18.
Output power of the converter with the RBFN.

Figure 18.
Output power of the converter with the RBFN.

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Figure 19.
Output current of the converter with the FLC.

Figure 19.
Output current of the converter with the FLC.

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Figure 20.
Output voltage of the converter with the FLC.

Figure 20.
Output voltage of the converter with the FLC.

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Figure 21.
Output power of the converter with the FLC.

Figure 21.
Output power of the converter with the FLC.

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Figure 22.
Comparison of the power with the RBFN and FLC.

Figure 22.
Comparison of the power with the RBFN and FLC.

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Figure 23.
Stator phase current of the BLDC motor ISA.

Figure 23.
Stator phase current of the BLDC motor ISA.

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Figure 24.
Stator phase current of the BLDC motor ISB.

Figure 24.
Stator phase current of the BLDC motor ISB.

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Figure 25.
Stator phase current of the BLDC motor ISC.

Figure 25.
Stator phase current of the BLDC motor ISC.

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Figure 26.
Electromagnetic torque of the BLDC motor.

Figure 26.
Electromagnetic torque of the BLDC motor.

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Figure 27.
Back EMF of the BLDC motor.

Figure 27.
Back EMF of the BLDC motor.

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Figure 28.
Speed of the BLDC motor.

Figure 28.
Speed of the BLDC motor.

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Figure 29.
Experimental prototype of the proposed converter.

Figure 29.
Experimental prototype of the proposed converter.

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Figure 30.
Stator current of the BLDC motor for the ISA, ISB, and ISC.

Figure 30.
Stator current of the BLDC motor for the ISA, ISB, and ISC.

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Figure 31.
Hall sensor signals of the BLDC motor for HA, HB, and HC.

Figure 31.
Hall sensor signals of the BLDC motor for HA, HB, and HC.

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Figure 32.
Hardware results of the proposed converter for the RBFN controller.

Figure 32.
Hardware results of the proposed converter for the RBFN controller.

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Figure 33.
Dynamic performance of the BLDC motor for the RBFN controller.

Figure 33.
Dynamic performance of the BLDC motor for the RBFN controller.

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Figure 34.
Hardware results of the proposed converter for the FLC controller.

Figure 34.
Hardware results of the proposed converter for the FLC controller.

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Figure 35.
Dynamic performance of the BLDC motor for the FLC controller.

Figure 35.
Dynamic performance of the BLDC motor for the FLC controller.

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Table 1.
Specifications of a 1.26 kW PEMFC.

Table 1.
Specifications of a 1.26 kW PEMFC.

Parameters Rating
Maximum power (Pmax) 1.26 kW
Maximum current (Imax) 52 A
Maximum voltage P (max) 34.8 V
No. of cells 42
Temperature (T) 54 °C
Fuel cell response time (s) 1 s
Nominal air flow rate 2400 IPM

Table 2.
Performance comparison of the proposed converter with other topologies.

Table 2.
Performance comparison of the proposed converter with other topologies.

Reference Number of
Switches
Number of Diodes Number of Capacitors Number of
Cores
Voltage
Gain
Voltage Stress
of Switches
Converter in [16] 1 5 5 1 N 2 + D + 3 1 D V 0 N 2 + D + 3
Converter in [17] 2 3 3 2 3 + D 1 D V 0 3 + D
Converter in [18] 2 5 5 2 4 1 D V 0 4
Converter in [19] 1 4 4 1 3 D 1 D V 0 3 D
Converter in [20] 1 3 3 1 2 ( 1 D ) 2 V 0 2
Converter in [21] 2 2 3 1 2 + N 1 D V 0 2 + N
Converter in [22] 1 5 5 1 3 + 2 N 1 D V 0 3 + 2 N
Converter in [23] 2 4 2 1 2 + N D 1 D V 0 2 + N D
Converter in [24] 2 3 8 1 1 + D 1 D N V 0 N ( 1 + D )
Converter in [25] 2 4 3 4 2 1 D + N D V 0 2 + N D ( 1 D )
Proposed Converter 2 4 3 2 4 + 3 N 1 D V 0 4 + 3 N

Table 3.
Parameters for the RBFN.

Table 3.
Parameters for the RBFN.

Parameters Values
Input variables VFC, IFC
Input variables Duty ratio
Spread factor 0.01
Training algorithm Ordinary least squares
Maximum limit of the hidden neurons 529

Table 4.
Electronic commutation sequence of the BLDC motor.

Table 4.
Electronic commutation sequence of the BLDC motor.

θ (Degree) Hall Signals VSI Switching States
HA HB HC S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0–60 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
60–120 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
120–180 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
180–240 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
240–300 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
300–360 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
NA 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 5.
Simulation parameters.

Table 5.
Simulation parameters.

Components Parameters
Input voltage VFC 30–35 V
Output voltage V0 370 V
Switching frequency 10 kHz
Duty cycle 0.6
Turns ratio 1
The capacitors C1, C2 4 μF
The capacitors C3 2.2 μF
The capacitors C4, C5 650 nF
The capacitor C0 470 μF

Table 6.
Contrast of the DC power with RBFN and fuzzy-based MPPT controllers.

Table 6.
Contrast of the DC power with RBFN and fuzzy-based MPPT controllers.

Parameters PEMFC with RBFN-Based MPPT PEMFC with Fuzzy-Based MPPT
Time Period (S) 0 to 0.3 0.3 to 0.5 0.5 to 0.7 0.7 to 0.9 0 to 0.3 0.3 to 0.5 0.5 to 0.7 0.7 to 0.9
Fuel Cell
Temperature (°K)
340 320 360 350 340 320 360 350
Output voltage VDC (V) 258 226 368 344 253 222 374 340
Output current IDC (A) 4.6 4.1 6.7 6.1 3.3 2.8 4.7 4.3
Output power PDC (W) 1197 900 2503 2155 868 645 1788 1536

Table 7.
Components used in the hardware.

Table 7.
Components used in the hardware.

Components Parameters
The power MOSFET’s S1, S2 IXTK 62N 25
The diodes D1, D2, D3, D4 RF1001
The diodes D5, D6, D0 MUR1560
The capacitors C0 470 μF
The capacitors C1, C2 4 μF
The capacitors C3 2.2 μF
The capacitors C4, C5 650 nF
Coupled inductors EPCOS B66344
Motor BLDC

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