Optimization of Controlled Low-Strength Material from Multi-Component Coal-Based Solid Waste

3
Optimization of Controlled Low-Strength Material from Multi-Component Coal-Based Solid Waste


This is an early access version, the complete PDF, HTML, and XML versions will be available soon.

Article

School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, China

*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Sustainability 2024, 16(4), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16041513 (registering DOI)

Submission received: 22 December 2023
/
Revised: 27 January 2024
/
Accepted: 7 February 2024
/
Published: 10 February 2024

Abstract

Recently, controlled low-strength material (CLSM) has been considered an easy-to-mix material, and the raw material is usually derived from solid waste, suggesting lower production costs. Moreover, the resource utilization of waste fosters the sustainable advancement of both society and the environment. In the present work, a CLSM with excellent performance was developed by adopting fly ash, bottom ash, desulfuration gypsum, and cement as the main cementitious materials, as well as gasification coarse slag and coal gangue as aggregates. An orthogonal experiment with three factors and three levels was designed according to the ratio of cement to binder, the contents of water, and the water-reducing agent. Further, the macroscopic properties of flowability, dry density, bleeding, compressive strength, fresh density, porosity, and absorption rate of the CLSM mixtures were tested. To optimize the CLSM proportion, the ranges of three indicators of CLSM were calculated. Experimental results manifested that the fresh and dry densities of the mixtures were within the range recommended by ACI 229. The optimal levels of cement−binder ratio (i.e., the ratio of cement to binder), water content, and water-reducing agent content are 0.24, 248 kg·m–3, and 0.80 kg·m–3, respectively. Under this condition, the flowability was 251 mm, the bleeding was 3.96%, and the compressive strength for 3 d, 7 d, and 28 d was 1.50 MPa, 3.06 MPa, and 7.79 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, the leaching values of eight heavy metals in CLSM and raw materials were less than the standard requirements, indicative of no leaching risk.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, T.; Yuan, N.; Wang, S.; Zhang, X.; Lin, C.; Wu, X.; Wang, Q.; Wang, D.
Optimization of Controlled Low-Strength Material from Multi-Component Coal-Based Solid Waste. Sustainability 2024, 16, 1513.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su16041513

AMA Style

Chen T, Yuan N, Wang S, Zhang X, Lin C, Wu X, Wang Q, Wang D.
Optimization of Controlled Low-Strength Material from Multi-Component Coal-Based Solid Waste. Sustainability. 2024; 16(4):1513.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su16041513

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Tianxiang, Ning Yuan, Shanhu Wang, Xinling Zhang, Chaoyang Lin, Xinyue Wu, Qibao Wang, and Dongmin Wang.
2024. “Optimization of Controlled Low-Strength Material from Multi-Component Coal-Based Solid Waste” Sustainability 16, no. 4: 1513.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su16041513

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article metric data becomes available approximately 24 hours after publication online.


Disasters Expo USA, is proud to be supported by Inergency for their next upcoming edition on March 6th & 7th 2024!

The leading event mitigating the world’s most costly disasters is returning to the Miami Beach

Convention Center and we want you to join us at the industry’s central platform for emergency management professionals.
Disasters Expo USA is proud to provide a central platform for the industry to connect and
engage with the industry’s leading professionals to better prepare, protect, prevent, respond
and recover from the disasters of today.
Hosting a dedicated platform for the convergence of disaster risk reduction, the keynote line up for Disasters Expo USA 2024 will provide an insight into successful case studies and
programs to accurately prepare for disasters. Featuring sessions from the likes of The Federal Emergency Management Agency,
NASA, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NOAA, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, TSA and several more this event is certainly providing you with the knowledge
required to prepare, respond and recover to disasters.
With over 50 hours worth of unmissable content, exciting new features such as their Disaster
Resilience Roundtable, Emergency Response Live, an Immersive Hurricane Simulation and
much more over just two days, you are guaranteed to gain an all-encompassing insight into
the industry to tackle the challenges of disasters.
By uniting global disaster risk management experts, well experienced emergency
responders and the leading innovators from the world, the event is the hub of the solutions
that provide attendees with tools that they can use to protect the communities and mitigate
the damage from disasters.
Tickets for the event are $119, but we have been given the promo code: HUGI100 that will
enable you to attend the event for FREE!

So don’t miss out and register today: https://shorturl.at/aikrW

And in case you missed it, here is our ultimate road trip playlist is the perfect mix of podcasts, and hidden gems that will keep you energized for the entire journey

-

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More