Predicting Consumer Intention to Adopt Battery Electric Vehicles: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior

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Predicting Consumer Intention to Adopt Battery Electric Vehicles: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior


Deka et al. [15] 2023 India EVs 317 ATT, SN, PBC Cost, herd behavior, personal norms SN and PBC: positive (+) direct impact. Attitude: negative (−) impact/cost, herd behavior, personal norms mediate TPB variables (no influence alone). Buranelli de Oliveira et al. [16] 2022 Brazil EVs 488 ATT, SN, PBC Emotions and additional items complexity, relative advantage, compatibility, mass media, peers, self-efficacy, facilitators, constraints ATT and influence of emotions: positive effect on intention to use. Yegin and Ikram [17] 2022 Turkey EVs 626 SN, ATT, PBC Environmental concern (EC)
and green trust (GT) ATT, PBC, EC, and GT: positively correlated with EV purchase intentions (+). Direct impact of EC. SN: negative effect (−). Shakeel [18] 2022 Pakistan EVs 511 ATT, SN, PBC Cognitive states (CS), product perception (PP), non-monetary incentive policy (NMIP), monetary policy (MIP) on purchase intention ATT, SN, PBC, PP, NMIP, and MIP: positive impact on consumer purchase intention. Hasan [19] 2021 Norway EVs 278 SN, ATT, Perceived functional barriers Overall satisfaction (cost aspect, range and recharge, policy measures, environmental attributes, symbolic attributes, availability) on repurchase intention (RI) ATT, SN, and PFB: impact on RI. Unable to find significant direct effect of overall satisfaction on RI. Jayasingh et al. [20] 2021 India Electric two-wheelers 182 ATT Environmental concern (EC), perceived economic benefit (PEB), social influence (SI), charging infrastructure (CI), gender EC, PEB, SI and CI significantly affect consumer ATT, which in turn affects intention to purchase. Shalender and Sharma [21] 2020 India EVs 326 ATT, SN, PBC Moral norms, environmental concern ATT, SN, PBC, MN and EC: positive relation with AI (+). Direct impact of EC. Bhutto et al. [22] 2020 Pakistan HVs 266 ATT, SN, PBC Price sensitivity (PS) ATT, SN, PBC, and PS: direct positive impact on AI (+)
PS as moderator: no statistical significance. Dong et al. [23] 2020 China BEVs 1.021 SN, PBC Feelings and emotions + norm activation model: Awareness of consequences, personal norms, ascription of responsibility + cost factors SN, feelings and emotions, personal norms, PBC: positive impact (+). Liu et al. [24] 2020 China BEV 347 ATT, SN, PBC Driving experience
attitudes: charging convenience, cruising range, economic benefit, battery life, low emission, low noise SN, PBC, ATT, and the adoption of willingness in experienced consumers are higher (+) than in unexperienced consumers. Adoption willingness (+) through direct and indirect paths. Yan et al. [25] 2019 China EVs 537 ATT, SN, PBC Positive attributes;
negative attributes Positive attributes: positive impact (+). Negative attributes: negative impact (−). Eneizan [26] 2019 Jordan EVs 250 ATT, SN, PBC – ATT, SN, PBC: positive impact (+). Higueras-Castillo et al. [27] 2019 Spain Electric and hybrid 404 – Building on the theories of perceived value and reasoned action: attitude with antecedents: quality, emotional, price, social, acceleration, low noise Emotional issues, price, acceleration, low noise: positive impact on attitude (+). Quality, social value: no statistical significance. Shankar and Kumari [28] 2019 India EVs 278 ATT, SN, PBC Environmental concern, perceived CSR obligation ATT, SN, PBC, EC, and CSR: positive impact (+). Direct impact of EC. Simsekoglu and Nayum [29] 2019 Norway BEV 205 – Perceived accident risk, knowledge about BEVs, instrumental attributes, environmental attributes Environmental–economic attributes, SN, PBC: positive impact (+).
Being male: negative (−).
Perceived accident risk and knowledge: no direct impact, but indirect through perceived attributes. Tu and Yang [30] 2019 China EVs 300 ATT, SN Self-control ability with self-efficacy, facilitating conditions, PBC. Items for attitude: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, personal innovativeness. Items for subjective norm: interpersonal and external influence ATT: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility: positive attitude (+).
SN: interpersonal influence: no significance; external influence: positive (+). Xu et al. [31] 2019 China BEVs 382 ATT, SN, PBC Environmental performance, price value, non-monetary incentive policy, monetary incentive policy (MIP) ATT, PBC, SN, Environmental performance, and MIP: positive (+).
Direct impact of E-performance. Mohamed et al. [9] 2018 Canada EVs 15,392 ATT, SN, PBC Environmental concern (impact on constructs), personal moral norms ATT and PBC: strongest impact (+).
EC, ATT, and personal MNs: (+). Haustein and Jensen [12] 2018 Denmark and Sweden BEV and CV (conventional) 2467 PBC, SN,
Attitude: symbolic
Attitude: affective Busy lifestyle (PMN), personal norms (PNs), other control variables (experience) Comparing BEV users and conventional car users: BEV users perceive less functional barriers towards BEVs and have more positive attitude and norms. Symbolic attitudes most important factor. Adnan et al. [32] 2018 Malaysia PHEVs 403 ATT, SN, PBC Environmental concern,
personal moral norms, hyperbolic discounting on actual adoption ATT, SN, MN, and PBC: indirect positive impact (+); constructs are significantly predetermined by EC. Zhang et al. [33] 2018 China (Beijing) EVs 124 ATT, SN, PBC Policy supporting PBC and SN: positive impact (+).
ATT: insignificant. Policy support: positive effects on ATT and SN. Du et al. [34] 2018 China (Tianjing) NEVs
new energy vehicles 811 ATT, SN, PBC Personal norms, low-carbon awareness and policy, social demography, government policy SN, ATT, personal norms, and PBC: positive impact (+).
Government policy: (+).
Low-carbon awareness: (−). Wang et al. [35] 2017 China EVs 324 – Financial incentive policy measures, information provision policy measures, convenience policy measures, environmental concern All policy measures: (+).
EC plays moderating role between financial incentive and convenience policy measures. Adnan et al. [36] 2017 Malaysia EVs 391 ATT, SN, PBC Personal moral norms,
environmental concern.
Impact on attitude: Interaction, knowledge sharing, response of vehicle owners Dimensions of ATT: (+) impact on attitude. EC: indirect positive impact on ATT, SN, PBC, and personal norm. EC and AI not directly proportional. Degirmenci and Breitner [37] 2017 Gerseveral EVs 40 interviews,
167 test drives ATT Environmental performance, price value, range confidence, control variables (gender, age, profession, experience) E-performance is stronger predictor of attitude, and thus AI, than price value and range confidence. Mohamed et al. [38] 2016 Canada EVs 3505 ATT, SN, PBC Environmental concern, personal moral norms; control variables ATT, SN, PBC, and personal MN: (+) impact. EC: indirect (+) impact.
Age, employment: (+). Wang et al. [11] 2016 China HEVs 433 ATT, SN, PBC Personal moral norms,
environmental concern ATT, SN, PBC, and personal MN: mediate effect of EC towards AI.
EC: indirect (+) impact on AI. Kaplan et al. [39] 2016 Austria, Denmark, and Gerseveral ECVs 1443 Positive ATT, Subjective norms favorable to ECVs Perceived operational ease of using ECVs; perceived familiarity with ECVS. Fleet manager socio-economic characteristics, firm characteristics, and industrial sector, vehicle fleet characteristics and use patterns, country context Focus on fleet: positive attitudes and subjective norms (+), familiarity (+), perceived operational ease (+). Sang and Bekhet [40] 2015 Malaysia EVs 750 – EV acceptance model: usage intentions, performance attributes, social influences, financial benefits, demographic, infrastructure readiness, government intervention, EC Social influences, performance attributes, financial benefits, environmental concerns, demographics, infrastructure readiness, government interventions (+).

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