In recent years, the restorative effects of different landscape elements in high-density urban areas have attracted the interest of researchers. These studies aim to reveal the effects of different landscape elements on the restorative mental health of populations to guide urban planning and design. Natural elements are an important focus of the studies. Nordh et al.  assessed landscape components by evaluating representative photographs of urban green spaces and found that lawns, trees and shrubs, and water bodies are key components of the restorative effects in natural environments , and the quantity, type, and form of the layout determine the restorative effects produced to some extent . Recent studies have found that sounds in natural environments, such as birdsongs, wind, and water flow, can trigger positive emotions, increase concentration, and provide a calming and relaxing experience , whereas urban roads and hard paving are negative factors. In addition to exploring the restorative effects of natural components, given that the restorative potential is, to some extent, influenced by the direct experience of space and activities, some studies have attempted to analyse the elements of landscape composition by examining the spatial organisation of urban park areas . However, at this stage, there are still some deficiencies in researching the landscape composition aspects that affect restorative effects. On the one hand, there is a lack of multidimensional analysis, and current research mainly focuses on exploring the influence of individual landscape composition factors on the restoration effect, whereas the actual green space is a complex system consisting of multiple landscape composition elements that intertwine with each other and produce a comprehensive effect. Therefore, further research is required to explore the interactions among different landscape components and their combined effects on restoration. On the other hand, there is a lack of diversity in research methods, which currently focus on single-questionnaire surveys and laboratory studies. Although these methods are helpful in understanding the effects of landscape composition, they may not fully capture people’s real experiences and feelings in the actual environment. Therefore, more research that employs interdisciplinary approaches, such as psychophysiological measures, mobile perception technologies, and virtual reality, is needed to assess the impact of landscape composition on restoration effects more accurately.
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