Supporting Home-Based Self-Regulated Learning for Secondary School Students: An Educational Design Study

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Supporting Home-Based Self-Regulated Learning for Secondary School Students: An Educational Design Study


5.2.2. Implementation

This iteration lasted about 5 weeks. All students participated in the SRL class meeting in which the PI explained why SRL is important, how to use SRL strategies to learn more effectively, and the strategies implemented in their class. At the same time, the students started to use a self-learning management notebook to plan, self-monitor, and self-evaluate, combining the bullet journal method and the methods necessitated by their own actual situation (Figure A3). However, the students’ journals were not submitted on time during the last 2 weeks, owing to a public holiday and a change of teachers.

Group discussion experiences and methods were shared in the second class-meeting. Six groups shared, and the teacher gave feedback. The next class meeting was a reading exchange and sharing session arranged by the school. The former head teacher re-engaged with the class and used the class meeting time to mobilize students, encouraging them to participate in the upcoming class sports and arts festival. Each student had to participate and had 2 weeks to prepare.

Furthermore, 5 min weekly online group discussion groups also started in the first week. The students’ self-selected topics related to SRL or group scores, time, and platforms. However, owing to the holiday and the change of teachers, each group organized only two group discussions in this round. Most students were highly active in the discussions. Ten groups participated the first time and nine groups the second time.

5.2.3. Evaluation and Revision

First, the external incentive of group-score comparison continued to motivate the students to participate. When a group won a prize, they might celebrate in their QQ group. Moreover, after the PI held the special class meeting, students had a better understanding of why and how to regulate their learning, and they were more willing to invest time and effort in participating in SRL activities (S1, S2, S4).

Second, the change from the daily Excel form to a self-learning management notebook was more conducive to students’ reflection. Several students said that learning management, monitoring, and reflection were more systematic and that entries can be accumulated (S2, S3, S8). They thought this change was particularly helpful (S1, S4, S6, S7, S9) because “the notebook can be accumulated and reflect my progress and regression for a long time” (S3). They also enjoyed such self-directed design (S4, S9) because “I can add my own arrangements such as playing basketball or running today, or other daily arrangements in my notebook” (S9).

The document analysis of students’ journals showed that recording methods and monitoring strategies varied by student. Some students set goals, checked in every day (J1, J22, J40), and performed daily reflections (J5, J14, J25, J27, J28, J36, J37, J42, J47, J48), while some had no goals, leading to fewer reflections. In addition, some of the better student journals can not be seen by other students. Given factors such as holidays, the instructor gave limited guidance and feedback on the monitoring journals (S2). Thus, some students still had difficulty understanding how to use them to manage and monitor their learning.

Third, regarding the social interaction activity, the weekly group discussions helped remind the students to supervise each other to hand in homework and journals (S1, S2, S4–S9) and share some learning methods and SRL skills (S1, S9). “Our group leader is very responsible, and she always talks about the monitoring journals and reminds us to hand them in during group discussion” (S6). However, the teachers gave limited feedback on the group discussion (S2), so the students did not continue. Furthermore, the previous method of sharing and communication between groups took too much time, because the sharing of subsequent groups became repetitive.

Finally, regarding family–school co-education, over 93% of the parents continued to attend monitoring activities, according to the document analysis. This had slightly declined compared with the first iteration period, which might be attributable to the easing of the pandemic, when several parents resumed work and had little time to monitor their children. Conversely, this perhaps created an opportunity to transition from co-regulation to self-regulation. In the early stage, to increase communication between parents and children, the daily monitoring recordings were mainly uploaded by parents.

Therefore, we made the following revisions for the next iteration.

Rev. 5. Enhance the setting of goals to stimulate the application of students’ SRL strategies.

Rev. 6. Strengthen teacher guidance and feedback on students’ journals and online group discussions.

Rev. 7. Optimize the method of peer interaction and select a few groups for sharing.

Rev. 8. Adjust the submission method and platform for students’ journals to meet the needs of parents returning to work.

Rev. 9. Enhance students’ sense of self-efficacy and regulate the emotions associated with long-term home-based learning.


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