The Mediating Effect of Loneliness on the Relationship between Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents in Ghana

6
The Mediating Effect of Loneliness on the Relationship between Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents in Ghana


2.2. Variables

Suicidal behavior is the dependent variable in this study and was measured using two items: During the past 12 months, did you ever seriously consider attempting suicide? During the past 12 months, did you make a plan about how you might attempt suicide? The responses were 1 (Yes) and 0 (No). A suicidal behavior index was created, ranging from 0 to 2, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.63, which is an acceptable level.

The independent variable in this research is bullying victimization. It was measured by the question, “During the past 30 days, how several days have you been bullied?” The responses were categorized as follows: 1 (0 days), 2 (1 or 2 days), 3 (3 to 5 days), 4 (6 to 9 days), 5 (10 to 19 days), 6 (20 to 29 days), and 7 (all 30 days). Subsequently, the responses were recoded into a dummy variable, with “0 days” designated as 0 (never bullied) and “1 to 30 days” as 1 (always bullied).

Loneliness is the moderator variable used in this investigation. It was measured using the question, “How several times have you felt lonely in the past 12 months?” The responses ranged from 0 (never), 1 (rarely), 2 (sometimes), 3 (most of the time), and 4 (always).

Certain variables have been shown to be risk factors for suicidal behavior. For instance, studies have found that gender significantly predicts suicidal behavior, with females having an increased likelihood of engaging in suicidal attempts and ideation [66,67]. Age has also been strongly linked to suicidal attempts and plans [52,68]. School grade level has been found to be a significant predictor of suicidal behavior [69]. Scholars have also documented that sleeplessness is a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and plans [70,71]. Substance use has been shown to significantly predict suicidal ideation [72,73]. Finally, social support has been found to reduce suicidal behaviors among adolescents [74,75,76].

Therefore, variables such as gender, age, school grade, sleeplessness, substance use, and social support were included in the study as control variables. Age was treated as a continuous variable, ranging from 11 to 18 years, and school grade level was categorized as JHS 1–3 and SHS 1–3. Sleeplessness was measured as follows: 0 (never), 1 (rarely), 2 (sometimes), 3 (most of the time), and 4 (always). Substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) was also treated as a continuous variable, whereas gender was treated as a categorical variable (male, female). Substance use was measured with the item, “How several days have you smoked tobacco, marijuana, or drank alcohol in the past 30 days?” The responses ranged from 0 to 30 days.

Three items were used to measure social support: parental support, peer support, and school support. Parental support was determined using the following items: “During the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians check to see if your homework was done? During the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians understand your problems and worries?”

During the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians really know what you were doing with your free time? The responses included 0 (never), 1 (rarely), 2 (sometimes), 3 (most of the time), and 4 (always). A parental support scale was developed that ranged from 3 to 15, with a Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of 0.7. Peer support was defined using the item, “How several close friends do you have?” The responses were 0, 1, 2, and 3 or more. School support was specified with the item: “During the past 30 days, how often were most of the students in your school kind and helpful?” The responses were 0 (never), 1 (rarely), 2 (sometimes), 3 (most of the time), and 4 (always).


Disasters Expo USA, is proud to be supported by Inergency for their next upcoming edition on March 6th & 7th 2024!

The leading event mitigating the world’s most costly disasters is returning to the Miami Beach

Convention Center and we want you to join us at the industry’s central platform for emergency management professionals.
Disasters Expo USA is proud to provide a central platform for the industry to connect and
engage with the industry’s leading professionals to better prepare, protect, prevent, respond
and recover from the disasters of today.
Hosting a dedicated platform for the convergence of disaster risk reduction, the keynote line up for Disasters Expo USA 2024 will provide an insight into successful case studies and
programs to accurately prepare for disasters. Featuring sessions from the likes of The Federal Emergency Management Agency,
NASA, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NOAA, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, TSA and several more this event is certainly providing you with the knowledge
required to prepare, respond and recover to disasters.
With over 50 hours worth of unmissable content, exciting new features such as their Disaster
Resilience Roundtable, Emergency Response Live, an Immersive Hurricane Simulation and
much more over just two days, you are guaranteed to gain an all-encompassing insight into
the industry to tackle the challenges of disasters.
By uniting global disaster risk management experts, well experienced emergency
responders and the leading innovators from the world, the event is the hub of the solutions
that provide attendees with tools that they can use to protect the communities and mitigate
the damage from disasters.
Tickets for the event are $119, but we have been given the promo code: HUGI100 that will
enable you to attend the event for FREE!

So don’t miss out and register today: https://shorturl.at/aikrW

And in case you missed it, here is our ultimate road trip playlist is the perfect mix of podcasts, and hidden gems that will keep you energized for the entire journey

-

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More