An online hub for emergency and natural disaster solutions

Understanding the Effects of School Funding

Understanding the Effects of School Funding


Abott, Carolyn, Vladimir Kogan, Stéphane Lavertu, and Zachary Peskowitz. 2020. “School District Operational Spending and Student Outcomes: Evidence from Tax Elections in Seven States.” Journal of Public Economics 183: 104142.

Angrist, Joshua D., and Jörn-Steffen Pischke. 2010. “The Credibility Revolution in Empirical Economics: How Better Research Design is Taking the Con out of Econometrics.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 24(2), 3–30.

Baron, E. Jason. Forthcoming. “School Spending and Student Outcomes: Evidence from Revenue Limit Elections in Wisconsin.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy.

Baron, E. Jason, Joshua M. Hyman, and Brittany N. Vasquez. 2022. “Public School Funding, School Quality, and Adult Crime”. No w29855. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Baumol, William J., and William G. Bowen. 1993. Performing arts-the economic dilemma: a study of problems common to theater, opera, music and dance. Ashgate Publishing.

Biasi, Barbara.  Forthcoming. “School Finance Equalization Increases Intergenerational Mobility: Evidence from a Simulated-Instruments Approach” Journal of Labor Economics.

Bayer, Patrick, Peter Q. Blair, and Kenneth Whaley. 2021. “Are We Spending Enough on Teachers in the U.S.?”  No. w28255. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Bohn, Sarah, Julien Lafortune, and Patricia Malagon. 2022. “How Are Wage Gains and Government Programs Helping Families Confront Rising Prices?PPIC Blog, February 3.

Brunner, Eric, Ben Hoen, and Joshua Hyman. 2022. “School district revenue shocks, resource allocations, and student achievement: Evidence from the universe of US wind energy installations.” Journal of Public Economics 206: 104586.

Brunner, Eric, Joshua Hyman, and Andrew Ju. 2020. “School Finance Reforms, Teachers’ Unions, and the Allocation of School Resources.” Review of Economics and Statistics 102 (3): 473–89.

California Department of Finance. 2021. California Public K–12 Graded Enrollment and High School Graduate Projections by County — 2021 Series.

California State Auditor. 2019. K–12 Local Control Funding: The State’s Approach Has Not Ensured That Significant Funding Is Benefitting Students as Intended to Close Achievement Gaps. Report 2019-101.

Candelaria, Christopher A., and Kenneth A. Shores. 2019. “Court-ordered Finance Reforms in the Adequacy Era: Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sensitivity.” Education Finance and Policy 14 (1): 31–60.

Card, David, and Abigail A. Payne. 2002. ‘School finance reform, the distribution of school spending, and the distribution of student test scores.” Journal of Public Economics, 83 (1): 49–82.

Clark, Melissa A. 2003. “Education Reform, Redistribution, and Student Achievement: Evidence from the Kentucky Education Reform Act.” Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.

Cellini, Stephanie, Fernando Ferreira, and Jesse Rothstein. 2010. “The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 125 (1): 215–61.

Chetty, Raj, John N. Friedman, and Jonah E. Rockoff. 2014. “Measuring the Impacts of Teachers II: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood.” American Economic Review 104, no. 9 (2014): 2633–79.

Coleman, James S., Ernest Q. Campbell, Carol J. Hobson, James McPartland, Alexander M. Mood, Frederic D. Weinfeld, and Robert L. York. 1966. Equality of Educational Opportunity. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Conlin, Michael, and Paul N. Thompson. 2017. “Impacts of new school facility construction: An analysis of a state-financed capital subsidy program in Ohio.” Economics of Education Review, 59 13–28.

Darling-Hammond, Linda, Dan Goldhaber, Katharine O. Strunk, and Leib Sutcher. 2018. Teacher Supply Falls Short of Demand in High-Need Fields, Locations. Technical report. Getting Down to Facts II.

Dee, Thomas S., and Brian Jacob. 2011. “The Impact of No Child Left Behind on Student Achievement.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30 (3): 418-446.

Dee, Thomas S., Brian Jacob, and Nathaniel L. Schwartz. 2013. “The Effects of NCLB on School Resources and Practices.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 35 (2).

Dragoset, Lisa, Jaime Thomas, Mariesa Herrmann, John Deke, Susanne James-Burdumy, Cheryl Graczewski, Andrea Boyle, Courtney Tanenbaum, Jessica Giffin, and Rachel Upton. 2016. “Race to the Top: Implementation and Relationship to Student Outcomes. NCEE 2017-4001.” National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Dragoset, Lisa, Jaime Thomas, Mariesa Herrmann, John Deke, Susanne James-Burdumy, Cheryl Graczewski, Andrea Boyle, Rachel Upton, Courtney Tanenbaum, and Jessica Giffin. 2017. “School Improvement Grants: Implementation and Effectiveness. NCEE 2017-4013.” National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

EdSource. 2002. “What We Have Learned About K–3 Class Size Reduction in California.”

Gigliotti, Philip, and Lucy C. Sorensen. 2018. “Educational resources and student achievement: Evidence from the Save Harmless provision in New York State.Economics of Education Review 66: 167–182.

Gilraine, Michael, Hugh Macartney, and Robert McMillan. 2018. “Estimating the Direct and Indirect Effects of Major Education Reforms.” No. w24191. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Greene, Jay P. 2020. “The New “Causal” Research on School Spending is Not Causal”. Jay P. Greene’s Blog. February 25.

Gunter, Tracey, and Jing Shao. 2016. “Synthesizing the Effect of Building Condition Quality on Academic Performance.” Education Finance and Policy, 11 (1): 97–123.

Guryan, Jonathan. 2001. “Does Money Matter? Regression-Discontinuity Estimates from Education Finance Reform in Massachusetts.” No. 8269. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hahnel, Carrie, and Daniel C. Humphrey. 2021. What’s Next for the Local Control Funding Formula? Policy Analysis for California Education.

Hanushek, Eric A. 2003. “The Failure of Input‐based Schooling Policies.The Economic Journal 113 (485).

Hanushek, Eric. A. 2011. “The economic value of higher teacher quality.” Economics of Education Review, 30 (3): 466–79.

Hanushek, Eric. A. 2015. “Money Matters After All?Education Next. July 17.

Hendren, Nathaniel, and Ben Sprung-Keyser. 2020. “A Unified Welfare Analysis of Government Policies.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 135 no.: 1209–1318.

Holland, Paul W. 1986. “Statistics and Causal Inference.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 81, no. 396: 945–960.

Hong, Kai, and Ron Zimmer. 2016. “Does Investing in School Capital Infrastructure Improve Student Achievement?Economics of Education Review, 53, 143–58.

Hyman, Joshua. 2017. “Does Money Matter in the Long Run? Effects of School Spending on Educational Attainment.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 9 (4): 256–80.

Jackson, C. Kirabo. 2018. “Does School Spending Matter? The New Literature on an Old Question.” Working paper No. 25368. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jackson, C. Kirabo, Rucker C. Johnson, and Claudia Persico. 2016. “The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes: Evidence from School Finance Reforms.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 131 (1): 157–218.

Jackson, C. K., and C. Mackevicius. 2021. “The Distribution of School Spending Impacts.” No. w28517, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jackson, C. K., C. Wigger, and H. Xiong. 2021. “Do School Spending Cuts Matter? Evidence from the Great Recession.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy.

Jepsen, Christopher, and Steven Rivkin. 2009. “Class Size Reduction and Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and Class Size.” Journal of Human Resources 44, no. 1 (2009): 223–250.

Johnson, Rucker C., and Sean Tanner. 2018. Money and Freedom: The Impact of California’s School Finance Reform on Academic Achievement and the Composition of District Spending. Getting Down to Facts II.

Kini, Tara, and Anne Podolsky. 2016. Does Teaching Experience Increase Teacher Effectiveness? A Review of the Research. Learning Policy Institute.

Koedel, Cory, and Gabriel E. Gassmann. 2018. Pensions and California Public Schools. Getting Down to Facts II.

Krausen, K., and Willis, J. 2018. “Silent Recession: Why California School Districts Are Underwater Despite Increases In Funding.” WestEd.

Kreisman, Daniel, and Matthew P. Steinberg. 2019. “The Effect of Increased Funding on Student Achievement: Evidence from Texas’s Small District Adjustment.” Journal of Public Economics 176: 118–141.

Krueger, Alan B. 2003. “Economic Considerations and Class Size.” The Economic Journal 113, no. 485: F34–F63.

Lafortune, Julien. 2019. School Resources and the Local Control Funding Formula: Is Increased Spending Reaching High-Need Students? Public Policy Institute of California.

Lafortune, Julien. 2021. Targeted K–12 Funding and Student Outcomes: Evaluating the Local Control Funding Formula. Public Policy Institute of California.

Lafortune, Julien, Radhika Mehlotra, and Jennifer Paluch. 2020. Funding California Schools When Budgets Fall Short. Public Policy Institute of California.

Lafortune, Julien, Emmanuel Prunty, and Vicki Hsieh. 2021. “What’s Next for California’s K–12 Enrollment?PPIC Blog, December 9.

Lafortune, Julien, Jesse Rothstein, and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach. 2018. “School Finance Reform and the Distribution of Student Achievement.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 10 (2): 1–26.

Lafortune, Julien and David Schönholzer. Forthcoming. “The Impact of School Facility Investments on Students and Homeowners: Evidence from Los Angeles.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics.

Lee, Joonho, Bruce Fuller, and Sophia Rabe-Hesketh. 2021. “How Finance Reform May Alter Teacher and School Quality – California’s $23 Billion Initiative.American Educational Research Journal 58 (6): 1225–1269.

Lee, Joyce. 2020. “Mental Health Effects of School Closures during COVID-19.” The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health 4 (6): 421.

Little Hoover Commission. 2021. “COVID-19 and Children’s Mental Health: Addressing the Impact”. Little Hoover Commission Report #262.

Liscow, Zach. 2018. “Are Court Orders Sticky? Evidence on Distributional Impacts from School Finance Litigation.” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies. 15(1): 4–40.

Martorell, Paco, Kevin Stange, and Issac McFarlin Jr. 2016. “Investing in Schools: Capital Spending, Facility Conditions, and Student Achievement.” Journal of Public Economics 140: 130–39.

Miller, Corbin L. 2018. “The Effect of Education Spending on Student Achievement: Evidence from Property Values and School Finance Rules.” Proceedings. Annual Conference on Taxation and Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the National Tax Association 111: 1–121.

Monarrez, Tomas, and Carina Chien. 2021. “Dividing Lines: Racially Unequal School Boundaries in US Public School Systems.” Urban Institute.

Neal, Derek, and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach. 2010. “Left Behind by Design: Proficiency Counts and Test-Based Accountability.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 92 (2): 263–283.

Neilson, Christopher A., and Seth D. Zimmerman. 2014. “The effect of school construction on test scores, school enrollment, and home prices.” Journal of Public Economics, 120, 18–31.

Papke, Leslie E. 2008. “The Effects of Changes in Michigan’s School Finance System.Public Finance Review 36 (4): 456-474.

Park, R. Jisung, Joshua Goodman, Michael Hurwitz, amd Jonathan Smith. 2020. “Heat and Learning.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 12 (2): 306–39.

Pier, Libby, Heather J. Hough, Michael Christian, Noah Bookman, Britt Wilkenfield, and Rick Miller. 2021. COVID-19 and the Educational Equity Crisis: Evidence on Learning Loss from the CORE Data Collaborative. Policy Analysis for California Education.

Rauscher, Emily. 2020. “Delayed Benefits: Effects of California School District Bond Elections on Achievement by Socioeconomic Status.” Sociology of Education 93 (2): 110–31.

Rothstein, J., & Schanzenbach, D. W. (2022). “Does Money Still Matter? Attainment and Earnings Effects of Post-1990 School Finance Reforms.” Journal of Labor Economics, 40 (S1): S141–S178.

Roy, Joydeep. 2011. “Impact of School Finance Reform on Resource Equalization and Academic Performance: Evidence from Michigan.Education Finance and Policy 6 (2): 137–167.

Shores, Kenneth A., Hojung Lee, and Elinor Williams. 2021. “The Distribution of School Resources in The United States: A Comparative Analysis Across Levels of Governance, Student Sub-groups, and Educational Resources.” (EdWorkingPaper: 21-443). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University.

Shores, K., and M. P. Steinberg. 2019. “Schooling during the Great Recession: Patterns of School Spending and Student Achievement Using Population Data.” AERA Open 5 (3).

Sims, David. 2008. “A strategic response to class size reduction: Combination classes and student achievement in California.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27 (3).

Warren, Paul, and Julien Lafortune. 2020. Declining Enrollment in California Schools: Fiscal Challenges and Opportunities in the Coming Decade. Public Policy Institute of California.

Wexler, Edward, JoAnn Izu, Lisa Carlos, Bruce Fuller, Gerald Hayward, and Mike Kirst. 1998. California’s Class Size Reduction: Implications for Equity, Practice & Implementation. Policy Analysis for California Education; WestEd.

Willis, Jason, Kelsey Krausen, and Patrick McClellan. 2021. “Three Strategies for Investing One-Time Federal Relief Aid to Make a Lasting Difference: Sustainable Financing of Education Innovations. Federal Relief Aid Series. Brief 3.” WestEd.

Comments are closed.