User:Motacilla/Railway: Difference between revisions – Wikipedia – Inergency

6
User:Motacilla/Railway: Difference between revisions – Wikipedia – Inergency


 

Line 92: Line 92:

[[File:SMS Bremen 1907.jpg|thumb|{{SMS|Bremen}}]]

[[File:SMS Bremen 1907.jpg|thumb|{{SMS|Bremen}}]]

The German [[cruiser]] {{SMS|Bremen}} and [[French Third Republic|French]] training ship ”Duguay-Trouin” came to assist ”{{lang|de|Prinzessin Victoria Luise}}”.<ref name=NYT-1906-1218/> ”Bremen” tried to tow her off the rocks, but without success.{{sfn|”The American Marine Engineer” January 1907|p=5}} On 18 December the [[Merritt-Chapman & Scott|Merritt & Chapman]] [[salvage tug]] ”Rescue” left [[Norfolk, Virginia]] to try to rescue the ship.<ref>{{Cite news |title=Norfolk, Va., Dec. 18. |url-access=subscription |newspaper=The New York Times |date=19 December 1906 |page=8 |access-date=8 February 2024 |via=Times Machine |url= However, within days the sea, aided by a storm, had turned the ship broadside to the shore, she was [[Angle of list|listing]] sharply to [[Port and starboard|port]], and the water inside her hull was {{convert|16|ft|0}} deep on that side. Her engines had been displaced, her frame and keel plates were damaged, and on 19 December she was declared a [[total loss]]. Some of her fittings were salvaged, and the HAPAG ship ”Sarnia” took them to Hoboken, along with most of her crew.<ref name=NYT-1906-1229/>

The German [[cruiser]] {{SMS|Bremen}} and [[French Third Republic|French]] training ship ”Duguay-Trouin” came to assist ”{{lang|de|Prinzessin Victoria Luise}}”.<ref name=NYT-1906-1218/> ”Bremen” tried to tow her off the rocks, but without success.{{sfn|”The American Marine Engineer” January 1907|p=5}} On 18 December the [[Merritt-Chapman & Scott|Merritt & Chapman]] [[salvage tug]] ”Rescue” left [[Norfolk, Virginia]] to try to rescue the ship.<ref>{{Cite news |title=Norfolk, Va., Dec. 18. |url-access=subscription |newspaper=The New York Times |date=19 December 1906 |page=8 |access-date=8 February 2024 |via=Times Machine |url= However, within days the sea, aided by a storm, had turned the ship broadside to the shore, she was [[Angle of list|listing]] sharply to [[Port and starboard|port]], and the water inside her hull was {{convert|16|ft|0}} deep on that side. Her engines had been displaced, her frame and keel plates were damaged, and on 19 December she was declared a [[total loss]]. Some of her fittings were salvaged, and the HAPAG ship ”Sarnia” took them to Hoboken, along with most of her crew.<ref name=NYT-1906-1229/>

Among seafarers there was swift criticism of Brunswig’s suicide. In a shipwreck, the Master has a duty to remain in command, ensure the safety of his passengers and crew, and try to save his ship.<ref name=NYT-1906-1219/> He should also testify to any inquiry into the shipwreck by his employers or the relevant government. Brunswig did none of these things.<ref>{{Cite news |title=Topics of the times. |url-access=subscription |newspaper=The New York Times |date=20 December 1906 |page=8 |access-date=8 February 2024 |via=Times Machine |url=

In 1907 a [[submarine earthquake]] sank her wreck,<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=S/S Prinzessin Victoria Luise, Hamburg America Line |publisher=Norway-Heritage |access-date=28 July 2020}}</ref> and a German [[admiralty court]] posthumously found Captain Brunswig to have been negligent.{{citation needed|date=February 2024}}

In 1907 a [[submarine earthquake]] sank her wreck,<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=S/S Prinzessin Victoria Luise, Hamburg America Line |publisher=Norway-Heritage |access-date=28 July 2020}}</ref> and a German [[admiralty court]] posthumously found Captain Brunswig to have been negligent.{{citation needed|date=February 2024}}

Pioneer cruise ship

Prinzessin Victoria Luise was the World’s first purpose-built cruise ship. She was built in Gerseveral, and launched in 1900 for Hamburg America Line (HAPAG). Her career was cut short by being wrecked in Jamaica in 1906.

Background[edit]

In 1886, Albert Ballin joined HAPAG as manager of its passage department. transatlantic passenger traffic was seasonal, as passengers preferred to avoid the weather of the North Atlantic in winter. This left some transatlantic liners under-employed in winter. In 1889 HAPAG’s new flagship, Augusta Victoria, entered service. In January 1891 Ballin, despite criticism from his HAPAG fellow directors and from other steamship companies, sent Augusta Victoria on a 58-day “pleasure voyage” from Cuxhaven, Gerseveral to the Mediterranean and Near East. The cruise included well-planned excursions ashore at ports of call en route. Ballin himself was a passenger. The voyage was a success, so similar ones were planned.

Early cruises, called “excursions”, were a success, but ocean liners were not ideal for the task. They had too few amenities aboard to occupy passengers on long voyages. They were multi-class ships, with large steerage acommodation unsuited to cruising. Divisions between first and second class divided and limited access to deck space. What deck space there was was mostly sheltered, designed to protect passengers from North Atlantic weather. And some of the ports that tourists might like to visit can not accommodate liners as big as Augusta Victoria. Ballin saw that a ship designed specifically for cruising might be more suitable, and also that she can spend all year cruising.

Building[edit]

In 1899 HAPAG made Ballin its Managing Director. He soon ordered a cruise ship from Blohm+Voss in Hamburg. She was built as yard number 144, and launched on 29 June 1900 as Prinzessin Victoria Luise, named after Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, the only daughter of Kaiser Wilhelm II. She was completed on 19 December that year.

Prinzessin Victoria Luise was no bigger than an average ocean-going cargo ship of her era. Her registered length was 405.7 ft (123.7 m), her beam was 47.2 ft (14.4 m), and her depth was 27.0 ft (8.2 m). Her tonnages were 4,409 GRT, 2,249 NRT, and 1,480 DWT. But she was styled to look like a luxury private steam yacht, with a white hull and raked clipper bow and bowsprit, instead of the black hull and straight stem that was then fashionable for most steamships. Her lifeboats were varnished mahogany. She had a likeness of her namesake as a figurehead.[4]

Prinzessin Victoria Luise was a one-class ship. All of her 120 cabins were first class state rooms. Her public rooms included a ballroom, social hall, gymnasium, library, and smoking room. A luxurious art gallery surrounded her dining room. She even had a darkroom for amateur photographers. Ballin aimed to match the style and service of Europe’s finest hotels.

The ship had twin screws, each driven by a quadruple-expansion engine. The combined power of her twin engines was rated at 391 NHP and gave her a speed of 16 knots (30 km/h). She had two funnels, painted buff. The after one may have been a dummy.

After she was fitted out, Wilhelm II inspected the ship. He was said to be displeased that she was slightly longer than his imperial yacht Hohenzollern. HAPAG registered Prinzessin Victoria Luise at Hamburg. Her code letters were RLVT.

Prinzessin Victoria Luise (left) and Augusta Victoria (right) at HAPAG’s Hoboken terminal

On 5 January 1901 Prinzessin Victoria Luise left Hamburg on her maiden voyage. She called at Boulogne and Plymouth, and reached Hoboken, New Jersey on 17 January. Af first, her cruises were sometimes called “tours”.[4] On 26 January she left New York on her first tour, which was to Port-au-Prince; Santo Domingo; San Juan; St Thomas, in what were then the Danish West Indies; Saint-Pierre; Port of Spain; La Guaira: Puerto Cabello; Curaçao; Kingston; Santiago de Cuba; Cienfuegos; and Havana.[5] She arrived back in Hoboken on 2 March.[6] On 9 March she left Hoboken on a her second tour,[7] which was to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.[8] On 18 June she attended a Norddeutscher Regatta Verein regatta at Cuxhaven on the Elbe and hosted a dinner, at which Wilhelm II gave a speech in which he praised Ballin as “a bold adventurer to make peaceful conquests, whose fruits our grandchildren will reap”. The Kaiser also presented a portrait of himself to Ballin, bearing the dedication “to the farseeing and tireless pathbreaker for our German commerce and export”.[9]

Deutschland on a HAPAG poster

In February and March 1902 Prince Henry of Prussia visited the USA. On 11 March, as he left Hoboken aboard Deutschland to return home, the Hudson County Choristers sang to him from the deck of Prinzessin Victoria Luise.[10] Edward VII and Queen Alexandra were due to be crowned in Westminster on 26 June 1902. HAPAG aranged for Prinzessin Victoria Luise to leave New York on 10 June to take passengers to England for the coronation, calling at Le Havre and Hamburg as well as London.[11] However, Edward fell ill, and the coronation was postponed until 9 August.

Prinzessin Victoria Luise made summer cruises to Norway and the Baltic. In 1903 HAPAG scheduled her to sail to North Cape, Spitzbergen (now Svalbard), and the Baltic, leaving Hamburg on 6 June, 8 July and 28 July.[12] In September 1903 HAPAG announced that she might make a four-and-a-half month cruise almost the whole way around the World, including a fortnight in Japan. She might start on 13 September 1904, sail eastbound, and end at San Francisco on 26 January 1905.[13] On 12 April 1904 the ship left Hoboken on a cruise to the Mediterranean.[14]

In May 1904 HAPAG revised Prinzessin Victoria Luises round-the-World tour plan. She woud start from Hamburg on 25 September, and passengers from the USA can join her via the company’s scheduled transatlantic services from New York. Ports of call were to include Lisbon, Gibraltar, Genoa, Piraeus, Istanbul, Jaffa, and Port Said, whence she might pass through the Suez Canal. She might then continue via Bombay (now Mumbai) and Calcutta. Passengers were offered the option to leave the ship at Bombay, make an 18-day overland tour of India, and rejoin her at Calcutta. She was to continue via Singapore, Manila, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Nagasaki, Kobe, and Yokohama. Her intended arrival in San Francisco was brought forward to 17 January 1905. She was to leave San Francisco on 24 January to make her return voyage.[15] The ship might carry a band of musicians to entertain her 200 passengers.[16]

In June 1906 HAPAG announced that it might transfer Prinzessin Victoria Luise to its Atlas Service between Hoboken and the Caribbean, along with the Prinz-class cargo liners Prinz Eitel Friedrich, Prinz Waldemar, Prinz August Wilhelm, and Prinz Joachim. Prinzessin Victoria Luises route might be between Hoboken and Jamaica. The Prinz-class ships might work the route between Hoboken and Colón via Kingston.[17]

On 12 December 1906 Prinzessin Victoria Luise left Hoboken for Port Antonio and Kingston. Her Master, Captain H Brunswig, was 38 years old, and had been her commander for more than two years.[18]

On the night of 16 December, Brunswig tried to take the ship into Kingston, but he mistook Plumb Point Lighthouse for Port Royal Lighthouse. A recent volcanic eruption had changed the topography of the seabed, so that in places, actual depths differed from what was marked on the ship’s nautical charts. Heading north at 14 knots (26 km/h) the ship grounded on an uncharted reef at about 21:30 hrs.[19] Her engines were reversed full astern, but failed to free her.[citation needed]

Captain Brunswig sent a boat ashore to report the accident, and then retired to his cabin and shot himself. The passengers, unaware of his suicide, stayed aboard overnight. The next morning the Third Officer, Bruno Zache, commanded one of the ship’s boats and took it to Plum Point. A continuous line of boats was formed from the ship to the shore, along which the crew passed each passenger from boat to boat to disembark them.[19] Various hotels in Kingston then accommodated the passengers.[18]

SMS Bremen

The German cruiser SMS Bremen and French training ship Duguay-Trouin came to assist Prinzessin Victoria Luise.[18] Bremen tried to tow her off the rocks, but without success. On 18 December the Merritt & Chapman salvage tug Rescue left Norfolk, Virginia to try to rescue the ship.[21] However, within days the sea, aided by a storm, had turned the ship broadside to the shore, she was listing sharply to port, and the water inside her hull was 16 feet (5 m) deep on that side. Her engines had been displaced, her frame and keel plates were damaged, and on 19 December she was declared a total loss. Some of her fittings were salvaged, and the HAPAG ship Sarnia took them to Hoboken, along with most of her crew.[19] HAPAG transferred the liner Kronprinzessin Cecilie to replace Prinzessin Victoria Luise on its Hoboken – Jamaica route.[22]

Among seafarers there was swift criticism of Brunswig’s suicide. In a shipwreck, the Master has a duty to remain in command, ensure the safety of his passengers and crew, and try to save his ship.[21] He should also testify to any inquiry into the shipwreck by his employers or the relevant government. Brunswig did none of these things.[23]

In 1907 a submarine earthquake sank her wreck,[24] and a German admiralty court posthumously found Captain Brunswig to have been negligent.[citation needed]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External link[edit]

[[Category:1900 ships
[[Category:Cruise ships of Gerseveral
[[Category:Maritime incidents in 1906
[[Category:Ships built in Hamburg
[[Category:Ships of the Hamburg America Line
[[Category:Ships sunk with no fatalities
[[Category:Shipwrecks in the Caribbean Sea
[[Category:Steamships of Gerseveral


Disasters Expo USA, is proud to be supported by Inergency for their next upcoming edition on March 6th & 7th 2024!

The leading event mitigating the world’s most costly disasters is returning to the Miami Beach

Convention Center and we want you to join us at the industry’s central platform for emergency management professionals.
Disasters Expo USA is proud to provide a central platform for the industry to connect and
engage with the industry’s leading professionals to better prepare, protect, prevent, respond
and recover from the disasters of today.
Hosting a dedicated platform for the convergence of disaster risk reduction, the keynote line up for Disasters Expo USA 2024 will provide an insight into successful case studies and
programs to accurately prepare for disasters. Featuring sessions from the likes of The Federal Emergency Management Agency,
NASA, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NOAA, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, TSA and several more this event is certainly providing you with the knowledge
required to prepare, respond and recover to disasters.
With over 50 hours worth of unmissable content, exciting new features such as their Disaster
Resilience Roundtable, Emergency Response Live, an Immersive Hurricane Simulation and
much more over just two days, you are guaranteed to gain an all-encompassing insight into
the industry to tackle the challenges of disasters.
By uniting global disaster risk management experts, well experienced emergency
responders and the leading innovators from the world, the event is the hub of the solutions
that provide attendees with tools that they can use to protect the communities and mitigate
the damage from disasters.
Tickets for the event are $119, but we have been given the promo code: HUGI100 that will
enable you to attend the event for FREE!

So don’t miss out and register today: https://shorturl.at/aikrW

And in case you missed it, here is our ultimate road trip playlist is the perfect mix of podcasts, and hidden gems that will keep you energized for the entire journey

-

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More